Life Sciences Grade 10 Exam Papers and Memos:

Welcome to our Grade 10 Life Sciences Exam Resource Center. This page provides a comprehensive collection of exam papers and memos for all four terms: Term 1, Term 2, Term 3, and Term 4, specifically tailored to the CAPS curriculum. At the end of the page, you’ll find a dedicated section with detailed questions and answers designed to aid in your revision for each term. These resources are ideal for both understanding key concepts throughout the year and preparing effectively for your exams.

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Life Science Grade 10 Questions and Answers pdf

Cell organelles Related Questions and Answers:

Here are some questions related to cell organelles:

Question: What is the function of the mitochondria in a cell?

Answer: The mitochondria is often referred to as the “powerhouse” of the cell because it generates most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.

Question: What is the role of ribosomes in a cell?

Answer: Ribosomes play a crucial role in the process of protein synthesis, translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into protein.

Question: Which cell organelle is responsible for the breakdown of waste materials and cellular debris within a cell?

Answer: The lysosome is responsible for the breakdown of waste materials and cellular debris within a cell.

Question: What structure within a cell serves as the site for lipid synthesis?

Answer: The Endoplasmic Reticulum, specifically the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, serves as the site for lipid synthesis.

Question: Which organelle is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?

Answer: The chloroplast, which is involved in the process of photosynthesis, is found in plant cells but not in animal cells.

Question: Describe the function of the Golgi apparatus within a cell.

Answer: The Golgi apparatus, or Golgi complex, is involved in the modification, sorting, and packaging of proteins for transport to different parts of the cell or for secretion out of the cell.

Question: How do peroxisomes contribute to a cell’s metabolic processes?

Answer: Peroxisomes play a crucial role in the cell’s metabolism by breaking down fatty acids to be used for forming bio-molecules and detoxifying certain chemicals within the cell.

Question: What is the primary function of the nucleolus in the nucleus of a cell?

Answer: The primary function of the nucleolus is to produce and assemble the components of ribosomes.

Question: What is the cell wall, and in which types of cells can it be found?

Answer: The cell wall is a rigid layer of polysaccharides present outside the cell membrane of plant cells, fungi, and some bacteria. It provides these cells with structural support and protection.

Question: What is the role of vacuoles in a cell?

Answer: Vacuoles are involved in many processes, including the storage of nutrients and waste products, maintaining turgor pressure (in plant cells), and contributing to the process of growth.

Organic Compounds and Food-Related Questions and Answers:

Here are some sample questions and answers based on the topic of organic compounds and food for a 10th grade Life Sciences class:

  1. Question: What are the four main types of organic compounds found in living organisms? Answer: The four main types of organic compounds found in living organisms are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
  2. Question: Why is it important for the human body to consume proteins? Answer: Proteins are essential for the human body as they are crucial for growth and development. They play a vital role in muscle development, tissue repair, immune function, making essential hormones and enzymes, and providing energy when carbohydrates are not available.
  3. Question: What is the role of carbohydrates in our diet? Answer: Carbohydrates are the body’s primary source of energy. They are easily converted into glucose, a type of sugar which the body uses to perform all of its functions.
  4. Question: What is the primary function of dietary fat in the human body? Answer: Dietary fats provide the body with a concentrated source of energy. They also provide insulation to keep the body warm, protect organs, and help with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K).
  5. Question: What is cellulose, and why is it important in our diet even though humans cannot digest it? Answer: Cellulose is a type of carbohydrate found in plant cell walls. Though it cannot be digested by humans, it forms an essential part of our diet as dietary fiber. It aids in digestion by adding bulk to our diet, preventing constipation, and maintaining overall gut health.
  6. Question: What are essential amino acids, and why must they be a part of our diet? Answer: Essential amino acids are those that the body cannot synthesize on its own, and therefore must be obtained through diet. They are necessary for protein synthesis, tissue repair, nutrient absorption, and other important physiological functions.
  7. Question: What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats? Answer: Saturated fats have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. They are generally solid at room temperature and can be found in animal products and some plant sources. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. They are usually liquid at room temperature and can be found in oils from plants.
  8. Question: How does the body store excess carbohydrates and lipids for future energy use? Answer: The body stores excess carbohydrates as glycogen in the liver and muscles for short-term energy storage. Excess lipids are stored as triglycerides in fat cells (adipocytes), which can be used for long-term energy needs.
  9. Question: What is lactose, and why do some people have difficulty digesting it? Answer: Lactose is a disaccharide carbohydrate found in milk and dairy products. Some people lack sufficient amounts of an enzyme called lactase, which is necessary for lactose digestion. This condition is known as lactose intolerance, and it can cause digestive issues when dairy products are consumed.
  10. Question: What is the role of vitamins and minerals in human nutrition? Answer: Vitamins and minerals, also known as micronutrients, play a vital role in human nutrition. They are essential for various bodily functions, including energy production, immune function, blood clotting, and making necessary hormones. They are also crucial for bone health, fluid balance, and several other physiological processes.
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Enzyme activity Related Questions and Answers

The effect of temperature on enzyme activity along with their answers:

  1. Question: What is an enzyme? Answer: An enzyme is a type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions in a cell. They work as catalysts by lowering the energy required for a reaction to occur, making the process more efficient.
  2. Question: How does temperature affect enzyme activity? Answer: Temperature affects enzyme activity by altering the enzyme’s shape and thus its effectiveness. At low temperatures, enzyme activity is low because molecular motion is reduced. As temperature increases, enzyme activity increases due to increased molecular motion, up to an optimal temperature. Beyond this temperature, the enzyme starts to denature, or lose its specific shape, and activity decreases sharply.
  3. Question: What does it mean when an enzyme is denatured? Answer: When an enzyme is denatured, it loses its specific three-dimensional shape, which is essential for its function. This process is typically irreversible and results in the enzyme being unable to bind to its substrate and thus catalyze a reaction.
  4. Question: What is the optimum temperature for most human enzymes? Answer: The optimum temperature for most human enzymes is around 37 degrees Celsius (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit), which is the normal body temperature in humans.
  5. Question: Why does enzyme activity decrease above the optimal temperature? Answer: Enzyme activity decreases above the optimal temperature because the higher heat causes the enzyme’s shape to change, a process called denaturation. This change in shape disrupts the enzyme’s active site, preventing the substrate from fitting properly, which in turn stops the enzyme from catalyzing the reaction.
  6. Question: Describe what happens to enzymes at extremely low temperatures. Answer: At extremely low temperatures, enzyme activity is very low. The molecules move slower and interact less frequently. However, unlike at high temperatures, enzymes at low temperatures do not denature. When the temperature is raised again, the enzyme will resume its function.
  7. Question: What term is used to describe the specific temperature at which an enzyme works best? Answer: The term used to describe the specific temperature at which an enzyme works best is the “optimum temperature.”
  8. Question: What is the active site of an enzyme? Answer: The active site of an enzyme is the region where the substrate binds and where the chemical reaction occurs. It is highly specific to the substrate, similar to a lock and key mechanism.
  9. Question: How does denaturation affect the active site of an enzyme? Answer: Denaturation changes the shape of the enzyme, including the active site. This alteration prevents the substrate from fitting properly into the active site, stopping the enzyme from catalyzing the reaction.
  10. Question: Can denatured enzymes be restored to their original state? Answer: Usually, denaturation is irreversible, and once an enzyme has lost its shape and functionality due to factors like excessive heat, it cannot be restored to its original state. However, under certain conditions and with certain enzymes, renaturation can occur when the denaturing factor is removed.
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